The loud word in the history of creating a photo belongs to William Henry Fox Talbot. This briton worked for a very long time on his own way of creating photos. Later this method was called calotypy. It differed from daguerotype in many details. For example, photos Talbot initially consisted of a negative image. But when dipping them into a special solution in a dark room, the picture could be transferred to another carrier. In this case, the colors changed, the result was a normal black and white image.
Talbot has issued a patent for his invention, so this method of obtaining photos has not gained much popularity. Most often, such pictures were created only by the inventor himself. The main advantage of calotypy was the lack of restrictions on the number of copies from one negative.
The history of photography in Russia and other countries
The improvement of the photograph was not unified in Europe. Experiments were conducted in the USA, Russia and even on the Asian continent. The history of photography in Russia originated in the first half of the XIX century. A significant contribution to the development of cameras made photographer Levitsky. Before him, the design of any camera was too massive, which prevented its transportation. Levitsky replaced the side walls with furs. Now the camera could be folded for transportation. Soon there were models that were placed in a relatively small suitcase.
In 1980, Lieutenant Izmailov contributed his word to the development of photographic equipment. He supplied the camera with a magazine-shotgun system. This made it possible to quickly change photographic plates. A total of 70 records were placed in the store.
The instant shutter was also invented on the territory of the Russian Empire. The sketch of this device was painted by photographer Yurkovski from Vitebsk. A detailed description of the shutter was published in the journal “Photographer”, published in St. Petersburg.
In the USA, the development of photography was triggered by the foundation of the Kodak company. It was in her factories that a gelatinous substance was developed, which reduced the exposure time to hundredths of a second. Now it was necessary to improve the photographic equipment, so that you can use this minimum shutter speed.
The history of photography of the 20th century
Gradually, the photo got a familiar look. The picture was taken with the help of a camera (a large model was used in the photo studio, but there were also compact specimens). Inside the device was inserted film. After the development it was possible to transfer images to photographic paper. The history of photography in the 20th century did not develop as rapidly. In the first place improved the camera, not a photo. The only exception is the very beginning of the 20th century, when the possibility of creating color photographs was invented.
Over the past century, a huge number of cameras have been created. In Germany, the Leica company was founded, whose cameras are still considered elite and the most expensive. The rivalry between Nikon and Canon began, which continues to this day. But in Russia, the cameras “Sharp”, “Zenith” and “Smena” had a tremendous success.
In 1949, Zeiss introduced a pentaprism into one of the SLR cameras. This allowed the viewfinder to be placed not on the top panel, but on the back wall. Now the photographer could keep the device at eye level. A similar system is now used in many digital SLR cameras (with the exception of Sony models, which have a translucent mirror installed that is unable to reflect light in the viewfinder).
And it was only a brief insight into the history of photography. The technology of creating images was regularly improved. In the XIX century, new discoveries in this area occurred almost every year. Now a new story of photography is opening – already digital. Sony in 1981 created the first digital camera, which was significantly ahead of its time. Later, almost all giants of the camera industry joined the production of such equipment.
At the moment, you can take a picture of anything. Digital camera in our hands is less and less. Most often we use webcams, smartphones, tablets, gaming consoles, video cameras and digital binoculars. Some use the camera as a peephole. For two centuries, global changes have occurred in photography.