History of photography
Photo in the usual sense of the word was discovered by a man rather late. Until the XIX century, many chemical elements have not yet been discovered. Scientists then simply did not know which of them are able to respond to light. Therefore, it was necessary to save the image only with the help of drawing.
Fine art was strongly developed in the Middle Ages. No need to think that all artists in those days were poor. Some of them can be compared with current wedding photographers. They were hired to leave descendants their memories. Artists painted a portrait, for which they received enough decent money. But to create one picture took a huge amount of time. Often, one person or a whole family could not pose for so long in a stillness. I had to draw a portrait in several stages. Artists wanted to speed up this process. And then they adopted a device called the camera obscura.
The camera obscura was mentioned even in the writings of Leonardo da Vinci. In fact, its properties were known to Aristotle, the ancient Greek thinker. The camera obscura is a sealed box or a dark room without windows. In the center of one of the ends is a round hole. Light from outside to pass through it, falling on the other end. The person in this case will see a projection of the space, which is located behind the camera, but upside down. Leonardo da Vinci came up with the idea of sharing a room with a translucent canvas or glass onto which the image was projected. The artist could only draw a picture.
History of photography
With the development of optics, the camera obscura also began to improve. With the installation of a biconvex lens, the device ceased to have bulky dimensions. The camera obscura turned into a relatively small wooden box. In the back there was a mirror, from which the image was projected upwards, onto a translucent sheet of paper or onto glass. But the history of photography did not begin from that moment. Such a camera obscura did not allow to receive a snapshot, the person still had to draw an image. Therefore, the exposure time is still dependent on the skills of the artist.
The history of the photo originates from the beginning of the 1800s. The British Humphry Davy and Thomas Wedgwood decided to try to put in the camera obscura paper soaked with a solution of silver nitrate and salt. The result was a low-contrast image. But it took several hours to exhibit. When viewing a picture in the light, the image almost completely disappeared. Therefore, soon such experiments were completed.
The inventor of photography in the usual sense of the word is Joseph Nicephore Niepce. This man has always been interested in the camera obscura. And he made a decision, by all means, to achieve automatic creation of images on paper. And he succeeded. To obtain black-and-white images, we used paper impregnated with Syrian asphalt, also called bitumen.
The problem of such photography was the duration of the exposure, which sometimes amounted to all eight hours. It was impossible to photograph people, so the first pictures of Niepce captured the landscapes of his hometown.
History of photography
With the death of Niepce, the history of the development of photography has not stopped. This case continued Louis Jacques Daguerre. He used to create pictures of copper plates with a silver layer. Additionally, he coated them with iodine. But the result was a negative image that did not suit the inventor. And the exposure time has not decreased compared to the Niepce method.
In 1835 Daguerre completely accidentally discovered that the picture appears much faster under the influence of mercury vapor. This happened after the inventor put the unmanifested photo in the closet. The next day, he took out a ready-made photo from the cabinet drawer. Then I had to experiment with all the chemical elements located at the inventor. Gradually it became clear that it was mercury that provided rapid development.
In the future, the process of creating photographs gradually improved. Englishman John Frederick Goddard began to process silver plates with a mixture of bromine and chlorine vapors. Exposure time after that was reduced to just one minute, which can be considered a completely acceptable result. It was after this discovery that portrait photography became popularized.
In the 1850s, stereoscopic daguerotype was invented. Two pictures were invested in one device. With the help of separate loops or binoculars, each person’s eye looked at one photo. As a result, the image seemed to be voluminous.
The lack of photographs of those times was the impossibility of copying them. To create a new picture it was necessary to re-photograph. Changes in this regard occurred only with the invention of the negative-positive process.