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Digital photo alphabet: Shooting in different conditions

The quality of images is influenced not only by the optics and the quality of the matrix, but also by the correctness of the choice of manual shooting parameters. Since we have decided to gradually move away from the automatic mode, let’s look at some of the settings that can improve the quality of the frame.

White balance – it is the errors of the balance that make the pictures yellow or blue, depending on the light. The fact is that our brain corrects the image transmitted by the eyes: it knows for sure that the sheet of paper is white, and therefore it perceives it as such. A good camera also tries to adapt to the shooting conditions, changing the color balance depending on the shooting conditions, but not every processor can absolutely accurately perceive the type of lighting, which is why the colors of the image are violated. For precise adjustment of the balance in any conditions, the so-called balance adjustment on a white sheet is used. In cameras, it can be organized differently, although it has one meaning – to literally show the camera what color should be considered white under these conditions.

Light sensitivity is another important concept that is necessary for good shooting. Literally, the sensitivity of the matrix can be understood as the ability to make decent frames with different lighting: the lower this parameter, the more light should be (measured in standard ISO and can take values ​​on average from 50 to 1600). The sensitivity of the matrix and the film is almost the same, moreover, the effect of increasing this parameter is the same – enhancing the graininess of the image. As we used to choose the film in accordance with the shooting conditions, so in the digital camera one can set the value of photosensitivity. However, digital shooting is somewhat different from film: here you should not get carried away with high values ​​(for example, above 200 ISO), because the overall illumination of the frame can be enhanced by other methods.

The frame is grainy at high sensitivity.
Sensitivity helps to shoot in low light, but makes the frame grainy. The original is here.
Exposure compensation (exposure compensation) is the easiest and most effective way to lighten the final frame. Values ​​typically range from –2 to +2. If the number is positive, the frame becomes lighter, negative – darker. In contrast to the sensitivity, which also affects the quality of images with limited lighting, exposure compensation only increases the amount of light in the frame, without making the image grainy.

The original is here.
Auto-bracketing – as a continuation of the topic of exposure compensation, remember about bracketing. When this shooting mode is selected, the camera automatically sets the exposure compensation value in a series of frames: from smaller to larger. For example, in a series of three shots, one will be taken in normal mode, and the other two will be changed. Useful for novice amateurs who have heard about the possibility of adjusting the exposure, but do not understand its essence.

Focusing – more precisely, the focus area of ​​the camera. This is exactly the place the camera is pointing at, that is, it considers it the most important thing in the picture, approximately calculating the distance to the object. There are many ways to focus, for example, in the center or several points of the frame. Some cameras even provide the ability to move the focus point from the center to another area. It is very useful to have the ability to manually focus: when you can accurately specify the desired distance to the subject: this opportunity will allow you to take non-standard shots, for example, to photograph a web or glass that the automation simply will not notice.

Another useful concept: depth of field – this expression denotes that part of the space in front of the camera, which will be clear in the image. For example, when shooting landscapes, the picture should be clear almost to infinity (within reasonable limits), and in portrait shots this value should be minimal, it is desirable that only the model in the frame is clear, and the background is as blurred as possible.

Shutter speed and aperture – these concepts are usually used in pairs. The shutter speed is the shutter lag time in the open state: the faster it closes, the less light will fall on the matrix, which means the frame will be darker. The aperture also affects the degree of illumination of the image: the wider it is, the lighter the frame. Experiments with these parameters can produce completely unpredictable results. For example, a long exposure is useful when shooting fireworks: you can capture all the way the sparks of the salute. Playing with the values ​​of the aperture, you can control the depth of field (for example, to take a picture of an object with the most blurred background).

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